Performance Issues with 15 or more concurrent users


  • Used Zammad version: 5.0.3 (Channel Stable)
  • Used Zammad installation type: (package via Ansible Role)
  • Operating system: Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS with CloudInit (Automatically installed via Terraform.)
  • Browser + version: Mozilla Firefox 96.0.2 and Google Chrome 97.0.x (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64)

Expected behavior:

  • Agents can work simultaneously without performance problems.

Actual behavior:

  • When a certain number of agents (ca. 15) are connected to zammad, the system becomes very slow. Saving comments takes 20 to 60 seconds. After a reboot, the system responds very quickly until more users are working on the system again.
  • Searching for tickets works very well even under load (ElasticSearch works without problems)
  • The Production-Log or the Scheudluer-Log do not show any errors.
  • The monitoring is always error-free.

Steps to reproduce the behavior:

  • There are more than about 15 users working with the system.


  • Zammad is run on a virtualization cluster. (Proxmox)

Average resource consumption.

  • CPU: Average CPU utilization is 5%, under load it is 10%. Looking at the Ubuntu, the Zammad scheduler jumps between 5% and 100% (One Second Long) CPU utilization. (Cluster has 48 x Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2697 v2)

  • RAM: More RAM does not bring any improvement. ElasticSearch uses a MemoryLock so that nothing goes into the SWAP.

  • Storage: 40 GB (Data Center SSDs - Samsung SM883 - 540 MB/s Read and 520 MB/s Write)
    Switching from HDD storage pool to SSD has brought a 30% speed advantage when saving replies / comments under load.

  • Tested with the following hardware settings:
    15 CPUs and 24 GB RAM

It did not bring any improvement.

State when the problem occurred:

zammad run rails r "p User.joins(roles: :permissions).where(roles: { active: true }, permissions: { name: 'ticket.agent', active: true }).uniq.count"
zammad run rails r "p Sessions.list.count"
zammad run rails r "p User.count"
zammad run rails r "p Overview.count"
zammad run rails r "p Group.count"
zammad run rails r 'p Delayed::Job.count'
zammad run rails r 'p Delayed::Job.first'

Our configuration of Zammad:

The recommendations from the Zammad documentation were used.


es_version: 7.16.3
es_heap_size: 4gb
es_plugins: ingest-attachment
es_config: "zammad_es" localhost
    http.port: 9200
    http.max_content_length: 400mb
    indices.query.bool.max_clause_count: 2000
    bootstrap.memory_lock: true


    - { type: local, database: all, user: postgres, auth_method: trust }
    - { type: local, database: all, user: all, auth_method: trust }
    - { type: host, database: all, user: all, address: '', auth_method: md5 }
    - { type: host, database: all, user: all, address: '::1/128', auth_method: md5 }
    - option: unix_socket_directories
      value: '/var/run/postgresql'
    - option: max_connections
      value: 2000
    - option: shared_buffers
      value: '2GB'
    - option: temp_buffers
      value: '256MB'
    - option: work_mem
      value: '10MB'
    - option: max_stack_depth
      value: '5MB'

I think the bottleneck is the Postgres database, but the available resources are not being used. Can you help me with this problem?
Unfortunately, this problem was not noticed on the test system.

Best regards

You may want to check the available information from within performance tuning, it seems like you did not apply any. No wonder that web access is stalled.

If your postgres server really allows 2000 connections (you of course did restart it after configuring the option) then the DB is not the issue.

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In our Zammad instance with around 12-16 active agents and ~12k tickets I implemented 4 tuning enhancements that really helped boost the performance:

  • set WEB_CONCURRENCY to 4
  • move the tmp dir to a ramdisk
  • move attachments from the database to the filesystem
  • limit the number of tickets that are enumerated in overviews. Example: I renamed closed tickets to “Recently closed tickets” and limited it to the last 3 months or so. Having many overviews showing lots of tickets slows down your system so limit overviews as much as possible

After that we never had performance issues again.


Thank you very much for the answers. The problem could be solved some time ago by setting ZAMMAD_SESSION_JOBS_CONCURRENT to 4 and adjusting the Puma Webserver config (MAX_THREADS and MIN_THREADS).

The tip with “Recently closed tickets” is good :slight_smile:

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